There are several tests and packages available to diagnose and manage diabetes, including blood and urine tests. Here are some of the most common ones:
Fasting blood glucose (FBG) test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood after a period of fasting, usually overnight. The normal range for FBG is between 70 and 100 mg/dL. A level of 126 mg/dL or higher on two separate occasions indicates diabetes.
Haemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) test: This test measures the average level of blood glucose over the past 2–3 months. The normal range for HbA1c is less than 5.7%, while a level of 6.5% or higher on two separate occasions indicates diabetes.
Oral glucose tolerance test (OG TT): This test measures the body's ability to use glucose. After an overnight fast, a person drinks a glucose solution, and blood glucose levels are measured at regular intervals over the next 2 hours. A level of 200 mg/dL or higher indicates diabetes.
Random blood glucose test: This test measures the level of glucose in the blood at any time of the day, regardless of when the person last ate. A level of 200 mg/dL or higher, along with symptoms of diabetes, indicates diabetes.
Urine tests: Urine tests can be used to check for glucose and ketones in the urine. When blood glucose levels are high, glucose spills into the urine. Ketones in the urine indicate that the body is using fat instead of glucose for energy.
In addition to these tests, there are also diabetes packages available that may include multiple tests, such as:
Diabetes screening package: This package may include FBG, HbA1c, and lipid profile tests to check for high cholesterol levels.
Diabetes management package: This package may include regular FBG and HbA1c tests, as well as tests to check kidney and liver function.
It is important to consult a healthcare provider to determine which tests are appropriate for each individual's needs.