Cancer and Lifestyle

What is Called as Hyperplasia? Examples of Hyperplasia

Last updated on October 20th, 2022 at 07:56 am

Hyperplasia or hypergenesis is a general term referring to the proliferation of cells within an organ or tissue beyond that which is ordinarily seen. Hyperplasia may result in the gross enlargement of an organ, the formation of a benign , or may be visible only. Hyperplasia is considered to be a physiological response to a specific stimulus, and the cells of a hyperplastic growth remain subject to normal regulatory control mechanisms. This stands in contrast to neoplasia (the process underlying cancer and some benign tumors), in which genetically abnormal cells proliferate in a non-physiological manner which is unresponsive to normal stimuli.

What Causes Hyperplasia?

Hyperplasia may be due to any number of causes, including increased demand, chronic inflammatory response, hormonal dysfunctions, or compensation for damage or disease elsewhere. Hyperplasia may be harmless and occur on a particular tissue. An example of a normal hyperplastic response would be the growth and multiplication of milk-secreting glandular cells in the breast as a response to pregnancy, thus preparing for future breast feeding.

Hyperplasia may also be induced artificially by injecting hormones such as Insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) and human growth hormone. Perhaps the most interesting and potent effect Insulin-like growth factor has on the human body is its ability to cause hyperplasia, which is an actual splitting of cells.

Hypertrophy is what occurs during weight training and steroid use and is simply an increase in the size of muscle cells. With IGF use, one is able to cause this hyperplasia which actually increases the number of muscle cells present in the tissue. Weight training with or without anabolic steroid use enables these new cells to mature in size and strength. In addition, animal tests have shown that stretching a muscle can trigger hyperplasia though this phenomenon has yet to be confirmed in humans.

Hyperplasia may also occur abnormally, and is associated with a variety of clinical diseases.

Examples of Hyperplasia

Some of the more commonly-known clinical forms of hyperplasia, or conditions leading to hyperplasia, are:

  1. Congenital adrenal hyperplasia
  2. Endometrial hyperplasia – Hyperproliferation of the endometrium, usually in response to unopposed estrogen stimulation in the setting of polycystic ovary syndrome or exogenous administration of hormones. Atypical endometrial hyperplasia may represent an early neoplastic process which can lead to endometrial adenocarcinoma
  3. Benign prostatic hyperplasia also known as prostate enlargement.
  4. Hyperplasia of the breast – ‘Hyperplastic’ lesions of the breast include usual ductal hyperplasia, a focal expansion of the number of cells in a terminal breast duct, and atypical ductal hyperplasia, in which a more abnormal pattern of growth is seen, and which is associated with an increased risk of developing breast cancer.
  5. Focal epithelial hyperplasia (also known as Heck’s disease) – This is a wart-like growth in the mucous tissues of the mouth or, rarely, throat that is caused by certain sub-types of the human papillomavirus (HPV). Heck’s disease has not been known to cause cancer.
  6. Sebaceous hyperplasia – In this condition, small yellowish growths develop on the skin, usually on the face. This condition is neither contagious nor dangerous.
  7. Compensatory liver hyperplasia – The liver undergoes cellular division after acute injury, resulting in new cells that restore liver function back to baseline. Approximately 75% of the liver can be acutely damaged or resected with seemingly full regeneration through hepatocyte division, i.e hyperplasia. This is the basis for living-donor liver transplants.

Defination of Hyperplasia

Hyperplasia is increased cell production in a normal tissue or organ. Hyperplasia may be a sign of abnormal or precancerous changes. This is called pathologic hyperplasia. It can also be due to the growth of completely normal cells. This is called physiologic hyperplasia. Alternative name of hyperplasia is Hypergenesis.

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