Immune System and Immunity

What is an Immunity? What are the Immunity Types?

Last updated on October 20th, 2022 at 07:57 am

Immunity is our self-defense system to keep our body healthy. It strengthens us to fight the disease and keep us free from disease. Immunity is the ability of the body to fight the infections. The body has a system called “immune system”. The team of the immune system works with specialized cells like white blood cells (WBC) which are also called leukocytes. There are two types of leukocytes, namely;

  1. Lymphocytes
  2. Phagocytes

Lymphocytes recognize and remember the microbes or substances entering the body and produce the substance against them. Phagocytes engulf and kill them.

What is the immunity?

Immunity is the ability of the body to fight against various disease causing microbes or pathogens with adequate tolerance against any specific allergy and autoimmune disorders.

What are the Major Components of the Immune System?

Two major players of the immune system are Antigen and Antibody

  • Antigen: Antigens are foreign bodies which stimulate the lymphocytes to produce antibodies in the body.
  • Antibody: Antibodies are molecules produced by the lymphocytes in response to the specific antigens. Antibodies identify specific antigens, lock them and neutralize or kill them.

Antibodies are also referred as immunoglobulins.

What are the Immunity Types?

Primarily, there are two types of immunity:

  1. Innate immunity
  2. Acquired immunity
Innate or natural immunity

Non-specific type of immunity hence provides general protection to the body. It is inherently present at the time of birth. Skin, mucous membranes, hydrochloric acid (HCl) in the stomach, and white blood cells provide innate immunity. It is influenced by the genetic or constitution of the person. It has no relationship with previous infection or vaccination.

Acquired or adaptive immunity

Long lasting and developed after the infection or vaccination in life. In this type, the person’s own cells produce the antibodies. The lymphocytes recognize, remember and destroy antigens on the next invasion in the body. It has two types

  1. Active immunity
  2. Passive immunity.

Active immunity: It is the capacity of the individual’s own immune system. It is also of two types:

Natural Active immunity: It is gained from a previous infection. For example, if a person had measles during childhood, then there is less chance of getting measles later in life.

Artificial Active immunity: Antigens are deliberately introduced into the body using a vaccine. For example, a BCG vaccine is given to protect the person from tuberculosis.

Passive immunity: In this immunity antibodies are transferred from mother to the baby

Natural Passive Immunity: Antibodies are transferred from mother to her child through placenta or breast milk.

Artificial Passive Immunity: Antibodies are produced by other person or animal and injected into other person, e.g. small pox

You need to obtain optimal health for boosting your immunity.

Conclusion

Immunity is the ability of the body to resist disease, either through the activities of specialized blood cells in body or antibodies produced by them in response to natural exposure or inoculation. Our immune system is made of a network of white blood cells (leucocytes), tissues, and organs (skin) that work together to protect the body. The lymph node, a small oval-shaped organ of the immune system, is distributed throughout the body and linked by lymphatic vessels. The Lymph nodes are tightly packed with leukocytes, and act as filters or traps for foreign particles.

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