What Is Urinalysis or Urine Routine Test?
A urine routine test is a laboratory test on urine specimen. It can help your doctor detect problems that may be shown by your urine. Many illnesses and disorders affect how your body removes waste and toxins. The organs involved in this are your lungs, kidneys, urinary tract, skin, and bladder. Problems with any of these can affect the appearance, concentration, and content of your urine
Urine Routine Test is not the same as a drug screening or pregnancy test, although all three tests involve a urine sample.
Why Urinalysis is done?
Urine Routine Test is often used:
- prior to surgery
- as a preemptive screening during a pregnancy checkup
- as part of a routine medical or physical exam
Your doctor may also ask to do this test if they suspect that you have certain conditions, such as:
If you already have a diagnosis for any of these conditions, your doctor may use urinalysis to check on the progress of treatments or the condition itself.
Symptoms for Urine Routine Test
Your doctor may also want you to do a urinalysis or Urine Routine Test if you experience certain symptoms, including:
- abdominal pain
- back pain
- blood in your urine
- painful urination
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Medicines that affect the result of Urine Routine Examination
Inform your doctor about any medications or supplements you’re taking. Some of these that can affect the results of your urinalysis include:
- vitamin C supplements
- anthraquinone laxatives
Some other drugs can affect your results as well. Tell your doctor about any substances you use before doing a urinalysis.
Types of Urine Routine Test
There are three ways to analyze urine, and your laboratory may use all of them.
One is a visual exam, which checks the colour and clarity. If your urine has blood in it, it might be red or dark brown. Foam can be a sign of kidney disease, while cloudy urine may mean you have an infection.
A microscopic exam checks for things too small to be seen otherwise. Some of the things that shouldn’t be in your urine that a microscope can find include:
- Red blood cells
- White blood cells
- Crystals (clumps of minerals – a possible sign of kidney stones)
The third part of urinalysis is the dipstick test, which uses a thin plastic strip treated with chemicals. It’s dipped into your urine, and the chemicals on the stick react and change colour if levels are above normal. Things the dipstick test can check for include:
- Acidity, or pH. If the acid is above normal, you could have kidney stones, a urinary tract infection (UTI) or another condition.
- Protein. This can be a sign your kidneys are not working right. Kidneys filter waste products out of your blood, and your body needs protein.
- Glucose. High sugar content is a marker for diabetes.
- White blood cells. These are a sign of infection.
- Bilirubin. If this waste product, which is normally eliminated by your liver, shows up, it may mean your liver isn’t working properly.
- Blood in your urine. Sometimes this is a sign of infections or certain illnesses.
Protein in your urine
Your urine normally contains a negligible level of protein. Sometimes, protein levels in your urine can spike due to:
- excessive heat or cold
- stress, both physical and emotional
- excessive exercise
These factors aren’t usually a sign of any major issues. But abnormally high levels of protein in your urine can be a sign of underlying issues that can cause kidney disease, such as:
Your doctor may ask you to do follow-up tests to identify any conditions causing abnormally high protein levels in your urine.
If your urinalysis or Urine Routine Test results come back abnormal, your doctor may require additional tests to determine the cause. These can include:
- blood tests
- imaging tests such as CT scans or MRIs
- comprehensive metabolic panel
- urine culture
- complete blood count
- liver or renal panel
What is sugar in urine?
Sugar (glucose) is usually present in the urine at very low levels or not at all. Abnormally high amounts of sugar in the urine, known as glycosuria, are usually the result of high blood sugar levels. High blood sugar usually occurs in diabetes, especially when untreated.
Normally, when blood is filtered in the kidneys, some sugar remains in the fluid that will later become urine. If the level of blood sugar is low, as is normally the case, the body can reabsorb the sugar from this fluid before it leaves the kidney to be excreted as urine. When the blood sugar is high, there is too much sugar in the fluid leaving the kidney to be reabsorbed, so some sugar passes into the urine.
Sugar in the urine is associated with high blood sugar and diabetes, it is important to consult your doctor if you tested sugar in your urine. Sugar in the urine is often accompanied by other symptoms of diabetes, including fatigue, unexplained weight loss, excessive thirst or hunger, and frequent urination.
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