Common pathology tests are used to analyze samples of either tissue or blood to aid in the diagnosis and management of diseases, along with guiding treatment decisions.
In this article, we discuss the test used in different pathological conditions and abnormalities to diagnose the patient.
Quick Jump Table
What are the Common Pathology Tests?
Over 10000 pathology tests were ordered by our doctors and patients in the last 12 months, covering a vast array of diseases and conditions from cholesterol checks to cancer diagnoses. But what are some of the regular and most common pathology tests we’re having performed and what are they actually looking for?
Complete Blood Count
The full routine blood examination, also known as Complete Hemogram Or Full Blood Checkup which covers Complete Blood Count (CBC), provides important information about the numbers and correct development of cells in the blood: red blood cells that carry oxygen, white blood cells that fight infection and platelets that help the blood clot.
Abnormalities in any of these can tell us a lot about a range of important conditions, including some nutritional factors, medications, and, occasionally, exposure to toxic substances. Abnormalities in the hemogram blood test can be caused by anemia, infections, some blood cancers such as leukemias and some inherited conditions.
A routine urinalysis is a test performed on a sample of urine to look for some metabolic disorders (such as diabetes) and kidney disorders. A patient may be referred for urinalysis by their doctor in a range of scenarios. Common tests as part of urinalysis include testing for urine protein, for example during pregnancy, red cells for example with kidney disease, and also markers of infections of the urinary tract.
Liver Function Tests
The Liver Function Tests (LFT) are a group of blood tests that measure some enzymes, proteins, and substances that are produced or excreted by the liver. The amounts of these substances in the blood can be affected by liver injury. When performed together, these tests give the doctor a snapshot of the health of the liver and can provide a starting place for any further diagnostic testing.
There are many diseases, infections, and lifestyle factors that can cause damage to the liver and, given a significant amount of liver damage may be present before symptoms appear, pathology is key to early diagnosis and effective treatment.
Iron Deficiency Profile
As the name suggests, an iron deficiency test is a pathology test performed if your doctor suspects that you have too little or too much iron in your system. Iron is needed to help form adequate numbers of normal red blood cells, which carry oxygen throughout the body. Low iron levels can lead to anaemia, in which the body does not have enough red blood cells, leading to easy fatigue and lack of energy. Iron deficiency reflects poor dietary intake, poor absorption, or excessive loss of iron through bleeding, so it is vitally important to find the cause of iron deficiency, as it may show important underlying diseases.
Too much iron in your blood, known as iron overload or hemochromatosis, increases the risk of several serious conditions, including liver disease, heart failure, arthritis, and diabetes. Iron overload is asymptomatic until tissue damage occurs; damage can be prevented by early diagnosis. The effects of too much or too little iron are readily treatable, especially if detected early, making pathology tests important in this condition.
TSH (Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone)
As part of the Thyroid Function Test, this blood test is performed to screen, diagnose and monitor treatment for thyroid disorders such as hypothyroidism (not enough thyroid hormone) or hyperthyroidism (too much thyroid hormone). These disorders can occur spontaneously or because of tumours, pregnancy, infections, and sometimes medications.
The test measures the amount of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in your blood. TSH is produced by the pituitary gland and acts as a ‘messenger’, telling the thyroid gland to make hormones. In patients with a thyroid or pituitary disease, the messaging system gets unbalanced. Thyroid hormones regulate a range of vital bodily functions, including breathing, heart rate, and body weight, temperature, and general energy levels, so it is essential that they are produced at the correct levels.
PT INR Test
This pathology test is used to check how well the clot-preventing medication, warfarin, is working. People with heart conditions, such as an irregular heartbeat, or after replacement of a heart valve, may need to take this medication to prevent stroke. Other people may use warfarin to treat a current clot or reduce the risk of developing a clot in legs or lungs during periods of risk, such as surgery.
The test measures how long it takes someone on warfarin to convert one protein (prothrombin) to another (thrombin) compared to someone not on this drug. This chemical reaction is vital to clot formation. Patients on warfarin need to have the test performed regularly to monitor the drug‘ effectiveness and to allow the patient’s doctor to adjust dosage levels accordingly. Levels are affected by diet, medications, and changes in health. High levels may produce no symptoms but increase the risk of spontaneous bleeding.
Why is healthcare nt sickcare laboratory for your common lab test?
This website (https://healthcarentsickcare.com) has been developed to provide accurate, unbiased, and trustworthy information you need to understand your pathology tests. The aim is that by getting to grips with the pathology of your condition, you’ll be better equipped to have productive conversations with your doctors and health professionals and as a result can make informed decisions about your health. There’s now a wealth of evidence to show that people who play an active part in their health care make better progress.
Most Common Pathology Diagnostic Tests Queries
What all tests are done in pathology?
Pathology tests cover blood tests, and tests on urine, stools (faeces), and bodily tissues. A pathologist interprets the results of blood and pathology tests and looks for abnormalities that may point to diseases, such as cancer and other chronic illnesses, or health risks, such as pre-diabetes.
What are common lab tests?
Complete Blood Count. This test, also known as a CBC, is the most common blood test performed. Prothrombin Time. Also known as PT and Pro Time, this test measures how long it takes blood to clot. Basic Metabolic Panel. Comprehensive Metabolic Panel. Lipid Panel. Liver Panel. Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone. Hemoglobin A1C.
What are the types of pathology?
Anatomic pathology: The study of tissues, organs, and tumors.
Cytopathology: The study of cellular changes and everything related to cells.
Forensic pathology: Doing autopsies and legal pathology tests.
Molecular pathology: The study of DNA and RNA sequencing, genes, and genetics.
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