Pathology Laboratory

CBC Test

CBC test results help doctors diagnose anemia, leukemia, lymphoma, multiple myeloma, or other diseases. CBC stands for Complete Blood Count. It measures different blood cells in your body. 

What is the CBC Test?

The complete blood count (CBC) is a group of tests that evaluate the cells that circulate in the blood, including red blood cells (RBCs), white blood cells (WBCs), and platelets (PLTs). The CBC can evaluate your overall health and detect a variety of diseases and conditions, such as infections, anaemia and leukaemia. Blood cells are produced and mature primarily in the bone marrow and, under normal circumstances, are released into the bloodstream as needed. The three types of cells evaluated by the CBC or complete blood count.

Understand your CBC Test

A CBC is typically performed using an automated instrument called a cell counter that measures various parameters, including cell counts and the physical features of some cells. A standard CBC includes;

Red blood cell (RBC) tests;
  • A red blood cell (RBC) count is a count of the actual number of red blood cells in your blood sample.
  • Haemoglobin measures the total amount of oxygen-carrying protein in the blood, which reflects the number of red blood cells in the blood.
  • Hematocrit measures the percentage of your total blood volume that comprises red blood cells.
  • Red blood cell indices provide information on the physical features of the RBCs;
    • Mean corpuscular volume (MCV) is a measurement of the average size of your red blood cells.
    • Mean corpuscular haemoglobin (MCH) is a calculated measurement of the average amount of haemoglobin inside your red blood cells.
    • Mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration (MCHC) is a calculated measurement of the average concentration of haemoglobin inside your red blood cells.
    • Red cell distribution width (RDW) is a measurement of the variation in the size of your red blood cells.
  • The CBC may also include reticulocyte count, which is a measurement of the absolute count or percentage of newly released young red blood cells in your blood sample.
White blood cell (WBC) tests
  • A white blood cell (WBC) count is a count of the total number of white blood cells in your blood sample.
  • White blood cell differential may be included as part of the CBC or may be done in follow up if the WBC count is high or low. The WBC differential identifies and counts the number of the five types of white blood cells present (neutrophils, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils, and basophils). The individual count can be reported as an absolute count and/or as a percentage of the total.
Platelet tests;
  • The platelet count is the number of platelets in your blood sample.
  • Mean platelet volume (MPV) may be reported with a CBC. It is a measurement of the average size of platelets.
  • Platelet distribution width (PDW) may also be reported with a CBC. It reflects how uniform platelets are in size.

CBC results that are outside the established reference intervals may show one or more diseases or conditions. Typically, other tests are performed to help determine the cause of abnormal results. Often, a blood smear will be examined using a microscope. A trained laboratory technician or pathologist will evaluate the appearance and physical features of the blood cells, such as size, shape and colour, noting any abnormalities that may be present. Microscopic examination of blood cells gives the doctor additional clues as to the cause of abnormal CBC results.

Why Doctor Refer to a CBC Test?

To determine your general health status; to screen for, diagnose, or monitor any of a variety of diseases and conditions that affect blood cells, such as anaemia, infection, inflammation, bleeding disorder or cancer.

Which all Diseases CBC Test is Advised? 

A CBC test result can help detect several conditions. Some examples include;

  • Anaemia of various etiologies
  • Autoimmune disorders
  • Bone marrow disorders
  • Dehydration
  • Infections
  • Inflammation
  • Haemoglobin abnormalities
  • Leukaemia
  • Low platelets
  • Lymphoma
  • Myeloproliferative neoplasms
  • Myelodysplastic syndrome
  • Sickle cell disease
  • Thalassemia
  • Nutritional deficiencies (e.g., iron, B12 or folate)
  • Cancer that has spread to the bone marrow

What are the other Tests Advised if CBC Test Result Shows Abnormal?

It depends on the abnormal results and the suspected disease or condition, and your medical history and findings from your physical examination. Your doctor may request that a blood smear examination be done. Other general tests to check your health and to look for potential causes may include a metabolic panel test(CMP). A few other general examples of tests include:

  • Abnormal WBC results may be followed by tests for a suspected infection. Some examples include a culture of the affected area (e.g., blood culture, urine culture, sputum culture), a strep test or tests for viruses such as mononucleosis or EBV. 
  • If inflammation is suspected, then a CRP or ESR test may be done.
  • Abnormal RBC results may prompt a reticulocyte count, iron studies, vitamin B12 and folic acid, G6PD, or hemoglobinopathy evaluation to help make a diagnosis.
  • An abnormal platelet count may be followed by tests that further evaluate platelets, such as HIT antibody. Additional tests may be done to check for bleeding disorders or excessive clotting disorders such as PT, PTT, coagulation factors.

When a serious condition such as leukaemia, lymphoma, myelodysplasia or another bone marrow disorder is suspected, then a bone marrow aspiration and biopsy may be necessary. Numerous other tests specific for certain conditions may be needed to establish a diagnosis, such as flow cytometry, chromosome analysis, and/or gene mutation analysis. Talk to your doctor about the results of your CBC, whether additional tests are necessary, and why.

Important Note For CBC Test Result

Many conditions can cause increases or decreases in blood cell populations. Some of these conditions may require treatment, while others may resolve on their own.

Recent blood transfusions affect the results of the CBC test result.

Normal reference CBC test values for babies and children differ from adults. The laboratory will supply the reference intervals for various age groups, and a doctor will consider these when interpreting CBC test data.

When CBC Test Advised?

The CBC test is very common. You may have a CBC test performed when you have a routine health examination. A CBC test may be advised when you are ill and/or have signs and symptoms that may be related to conditions that affect blood cells. The test may be advised when you have fatigue or weakness, or easy bruising or bleeding, or when you have signs and symptoms suggesting infection or inflammation, to name a few examples. When you have been diagnosed with a disease known to affect blood cells, a CBC will often be ordered regularly to monitor the status of your disease or condition. Likewise, if you are being treated for a blood-related disorder, then a CBC may be performed frequently to determine if the treatment is effective. Some therapies, such as chemotherapy, can affect bone marrow production of cells. Some medications can decrease WBC counts overall. A CBC may be advised regularly to monitor these drug treatments. CBC test is also advised if you have fever-like symptoms and for other fever-like Dengue fever, chikungunya fever, malaria and typhoid.

How CBC Test Used For Diagnosis?

The complete blood count (CBC) is often used as a broad screening test to determine your general health status. A CBC test may be used to;

Screen for a wide range of conditions and diseases.
Help diagnose various diseases and conditions, such as anaemia, infection, inflammation, bleeding disorder or leukaemia, to name just a few.
Monitor the status of a disease or condition and the effectiveness of treatment after a diagnosis is established.
Monitor treatment that is known to adversely affect blood cells, such as chemotherapy or radiation therapy.

What is The Full Form of CBC Test?

CBC Test Full Form is a complete blood count. As part of a routine medical exam; when you have signs and symptoms that may be related to a condition that affects blood cells; at regular intervals to monitor treatment or disease status or when you are receiving treatment known to affect blood cells.

Where I Can Get CBC Test Done in Pune

healthcare nt sickcare laboratory in Pune included CBC test in most of their health packages and you can also book CBC test along with any other tests.

How much CBC test cost me?

CBC blood test charges in Pune is ₹149.00* and healthcare nt sickcare lab serving the entire Pune and Pimpri Chinchwad city limits.

Reference: LabTestOnline

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